How drones revolutionized mountain films

Lying on the right of his skis, a swerve to the left, stepping over some fir trees, before paragliding towards the rocks of the Morzines canyon then flying over a block of chalets… Filmed with a drone, the sequence no longer only offers to be seen the descent of speed rider French Valentin Delluc but turns into a substitute for thrills. The clip, promoted by the RedBull brand two years ago, left its mark on the world of film and mountain sports documentaries, gathered this week at the Chamonix festival, which ends on Saturday June 18.

For its second edition, the majority of the 38 films screened again relied on this technology. It has become ” an addiction “, confirms Thomas Guerrin, 34-year-old drone pilot and director, who this year presented a film on the history of the high mountain guides of Chamonix, a city-temple of French mountaineering. Because if the traditional helicopter has long made it possible to capture the best aerial shots, racing drones – or so-called FPV drones (First Person View) – have revolutionized the discipline.

contact and distance

“It brought something that we were incapable of: an immersion closer to performance and the ability, at the same time, to move away from the athlete very quickly to return to the landscape”, notes Maxime Moulin, documentary filmmaker for ten years, the arrival of the first drones on the market. With a camera on board the athlete and an aerial drone “which, on the other hand, gives the outside point of view, to also allow yourself long poetic shots, you can tell everything there is to tell without being present on the stage of the performance”, complete Thomas Guerrin.

The drones had however arrived in the mountains with a bad reputation: too intrusive, even risky, as when a machine had crashed on the slope in full descent of the alpine skier Marcel Hirscher, landing a few decimeters from the Austrian, in 2015. The specter of the accident forced the legislation to thicken, in particular for the overflight of dwellings, imposing an authorization from the Directorate General of Civil Aviation on the teams which pilot them up to 4 km away . “Depending on what we want to do, we cannot film certain parts of the mountain, the helicopter cannot be replaced, even if it also represents a greater environmental cost”explains Maxime Moulin.

Technology versus creativity?

In addition to a reduced cost, accessible to novices in mountain film, drones have reduced the risk-taking on set, for directors and for the athletes themselves – mountaineers in mind – by allowing more precise identification of less accessible climbing areas.

With the fear, however, of a standardization of films, tempted to overexploit these aerial images to the point of caricature. “We have in fact been witnessing for 10 years a standardization in the ways of filming. With drones, filming times are also reducednotes Steve Scott, director of the Kendal mountain film festival in the United Kingdom and member of the jury this year in Chamonix. To regain creativity, directors must learn to use them sparingly. »



How the Deep Blue-Kasparov Match Changed Chess

Checks, some checkmate, the computer programs had already inflicted on the wood pushers. Before encouraging the highest figures to be modest, such as the Russian world champions Anatoli Karpov and Garry Kasparov in the early 1990s, taking advantage of the advantage offered by fast game formats. But when the Deep Blue supercomputer brings down the second, the world chessboard changes, on May 11, 1997, twenty-five years ago in New York. On usual ground, the Ogre of Baku had promised, “no computer (the) will beat(it) ».

→ REREAD. In chess, is man doomed to lose against computers?

For the first time in the history of this millennial game, invested by the machine forty years earlier, the best program of the time – perfected by the care of IBM after being corrected by the same Kasparov – came to the end in the long game of the best player of the moment, still considered one of the most innovative champions in the discipline. “Not a turning point, but a starting point”, observes Fabien Libiszewski, a 38-year-old French international grandmaster.

A victory that catalyzes the research of programmers

If the match does not revolutionize the way of playing, it catalyzes the research of programmers. The databases soon expand to completeness, allowing both to democratize the game and to perfect the preparation of professionals. Because where a human touch still surfaced under the microprocessors of Deep Blue, the new programs are no longer turned towards a single goal: calculation, in the absence of play.

→ PORTRAIT. The day when “I understood that we could play chess in Morse code”

“We often play by intuition, suspecting that our move is not bad, but without knowing if it is the right one, since we are not able to calculate far enough to know if this estimate will always be valid any longer. late in the game. Not computers, which can therefore play moves that are at first sight illogical to a human eye”, explains Fabien Libiszewski.

For a player, whose strength lies more in memory than pure talent, the most accomplished analysis engines offer valuable insight into openings, those first moves that will determine the geometry of the game. Like “every player from the 1990s before Deep Blue”Éloi Relange, rising star of French chess at the time of Kasparov’s defeat, thus used the computer in his preparations, “but just to check (if he had) made no tactical error. Today, with the help of artificial intelligence, the best use it to come up with ideas that will surprise their opponent,” slips the international grandmaster, who has become president of the French Chess Federation.

The risk of smoothing the game

Shared on screens, game analyzes have gradually crossed borders. Until reaching Norway and watering the undisputed world champion for almost a decade, Magnus Carlsen. “Players can build themselves by finding opponents around the world to start and rework their games or those of others to progress”, says Fabien Libiszewski. With the risk, too, of smoothing the game, by losing in creativity what they gain in theoretical knowledge.

Observers were able to observe this, in part, during the last final of the 2021 world championship, where Carlsen broke away from the Russian Ian Nepomniachtchi, coached by one of the fastest supercomputers in the world, after five sterile and stereotyped first attempts. “It has become very hard to surprise them in the openings, it is true, but Carlsen remains extraordinary because he does not attempt an ace but continues to use it to start the game and make the difference afterwards, like at the bottom of the tennis court, remarks Éloi Relange. Way to say that Deep Blue beat Kasparov without killing the spirit of the game.



Football: how the Premier League tries to end violence

During the final of the European Football Championship between England and Italy on July 11, violence and racism made a resounding return on the international sports scene. Viewers and journalists were shocked to see unusual images in the final of a major competition: clashes with the police – which resulted in 49 arrests – and even a group of around 20 people without tickets forcing passage through the enclosure athletic.

The gloomy images were followed by racist attacks on the perpetrators of the missed penalties by the England team, Marcus Rashford, Jadon Sancho and Bukayo Saka. UEFA, which manages European sports competitions, did not appreciate it: on October 18, it fined the English federation € 100,000 and ordered the England team to play their next home match. in camera.

Violence has disappeared from the screens

Hooliganism, nicknamed “English disease” in the 1960s, would he be back? Not in the Premier League, the showcase of English football, from which it has been largely eradicated. “For a long time, football clubs and authorities considered hooliganism to be a social problem disconnected from football. But the creation of the Premier League by the Sky channel in 1992 changed this approach: the Premier League had to become commercially attractive. Violence therefore had to disappear from the screens ”, recounts John Williams, a sociologist at the University of Leicester and specialist in hooliganism.

→ ANALYSIS Violence between supporters: how to better prevent it?

At the time, those in charge of the new championship used many levers to change the composition of the supporters of the participating clubs. Obligation to have a seat, but allocated randomly, which made it impossible for supporters to meet by affinity; higher ticket prices to keep young people out; ban on obtaining a ticket for an away match without being a subscriber but above all the deployment of surveillance cameras in stadiums and impressive police or security forces.

The results are in. In ten years, arrests in stadiums or on the sidelines of matches have been divided by three, from 3,089 in the five divisions in 2010-2011 to 1,089 during the 2019-2020 season. Stadium bans were halved, from 3,174 to 1,621, including 453 in the Premier League.

The middle classes in the stadiums

This very expensive groundwork made it possible to attract the middle classes, an older population and families, to the point of transforming the Premier League into a luxury product. This has greatly tempered the atmosphere of most elite stadiums, deplore some observers. “When the PSG supporters came to Liverpool in 2019 with their club during a meeting, all the elders like me remembered our youth”, remembers the sociologist, who is also a supporter, with a certain nostalgia: “This craze, this noise, this fury, they were formidable! “

However, these measures were never applied in the lower divisions. “They are much more free, less regulated, less supervised, assures John Williams. Violence therefore persists more. “

Racism that endures

As for racism, however, it has not disappeared from the Premier League, even if it is becoming more discreet and severity is also required. During the 2019-2020 season, several black players complained of being victims of monkey cries, especially in the stadiums of Tottenham, Aston Villa, Chelsea, Arsenal and Manchester City. A City supporter accused during a meeting with Manchester United has been given a three-year stadium ban.

“Racism is found even in the sports media”, notes Paul Campbell, also a sociologist at the University of Leicester. Together with colleagues, he analyzed journalists’ comments on BBC and ITV TV channels in 20 of the 2018 World Cup matches. They found a glaring difference in treatment: “70% of the positive comments about black players spoke of their physical ability, 10% of their natural abilities, 10% of their abilities related to their training and learning. For white players, 50% concerned their learning, 18% their physical strength and 8% their natural aptitudes. “


In France, proposals expected in two weeks

A meeting was held at the Ministry of the Interior, urgently, Tuesday, November 23, in response to the excesses of supporters in football stadiums, in the presence of the ministers of justice and sports, representatives of the Football League professional and Federation, as well as some club leaders.

→ ANALYSIS. Football: against overflows in stadiums, rules that are too vague

At the end of this meeting, Gerald Darmanin assured that measures would be announced in two weeks. “We have agreed to work together on four subjects”, detailed the Minister of the Interior. The prohibition of stadiums for some supporters, their security (cameras, safety nets), private security responsible for controlling access and the decision-making process for stopping matches are the areas on which participants must work, who are will meet again in two weeks to submit their proposals to the Prime Minister.



Violence between supporters: how to better prevent it?

Desperate repetition. The seventh day of Ligue 1, this Wednesday, September 22, however, did not present high-risk posters. It prevents. The sad spectacle of the invasion of the lawn, which began on August 22 during the Nice-Marseille meeting, and reproduced on Saturday September 18 for the clash between Lens and Lille, had a third episode after the final whistle between Angers and Marseille.

This draw (0-0) would become even more so, with first exchanges of various projectiles between the two “kops” of supporters requiring the intervention of stewards and CRS. The ace. A few die-hards managed to break the security cordon to punch the green square.

A few hours earlier, near Montpellier, it was a bus of Girondins de Bordeaux supporters who fell into an ambush at the exit of the motorway by opposing fans: paving in order, broken glass … and 16 injured Bordeaux side, some of which need to be taken to hospital.

A phenomenon affecting other countries

“There is undoubtedly a revival of activism that can also be observed in other countries, such as in Italy where a serious injury was to be deplored in a lower division last weekend, or in England during a recent Leicester-Naples, underlines Sébastien Louis, sociologist at the European School of Luxembourg and specialist in radical supporters. We can probably attribute the phenomenon to the frustrations accumulated during the Covid period. And note that it is not only ultras who are in the maneuver, the images showing in these disorders sometimes known hooligans, but also lambda supporters. “

→ HISTORY. Greens close to relegation and club sale

Against this violence, the response of the football authorities, with rare exceptions, until then has been limited to collective sanctions. On August 8, the Montpellier supporters were the first to ignite the fuse by throwing bottles against their Marseille counterparts. Consequence: the Disciplinary Commission of the Professional Football League punishes the club with a closed session for three matches. Against Nice, it was also three games behind closed doors, plus two points of suspension, one of which was suspended. The Lens club, for its part, has been sanctioned for the moment by two games behind closed doors as a precaution, pending the results of the investigation on October 6.

“If Nice had been sentenced to 10 or 15 games behind closed doors, I am not sure that the supporters of Lens would have entered the field”, reacted the Montpellier striker Valère Germain, one of the few players to take a position on the subject. On the contrary, many experts point to the limit of these collective sanctions.

“There are three times more closed doors today than ten years ago, and ultimately that does not deter anyone, underlines Me Pierre Barthélémy, lawyer of the National Association of supporters which brings together about forty Ultras groups in France. In the current legal arsenal, individual sanctions are however possible, but are rarely applied: barely 200 people in France are banned from the stadium, against 10,000 in England and 4 to 5,000 in Germany ”.

An organization to review in the stadiums

This individual component makes it possible to exclude supporters identified by a judicial ban (up to five years, taken by the judge), administrative (for two years, and three if recidivism, taken by the prefect), or commercial (refusal to sell ticket up to 18 months, taken by the club) requires a thorough investigation using the video surveillance systems that equip most stadiums today. “Obviously, it is easier to impose a closed door or as a preventive measure to prohibit the movements of supporters”, regrets Me Barthélémy.

→ THE FACTS. Football: the match Nice – Marseille will have to be replayed behind closed doors

For Sébastien Louis, the solution also involves a reflection around a round table “Putting the groups of supporters in front of their responsibility, stakeholders of the problem but also of the solution. An upstream preventive component added to individualized sanctions would make it possible to move forward. Just like a meeting between those in charge of security in the stadiums to exchange good practices. “

During Lens-Lille, the intervention of the security forces effectively avoided too violent contacts. Elsewhere, the events reveal some shortcomings in the organization of parking for visitors, or in buffer zones between supporters that are too narrow. “75% of the stewards have also been renewed since the Covid period, with the loss of skills that this generates”, assures Me Barthélémy. Sports Minister Roxana Maracineanu recently acknowledged that in terms of training too, “We have to think together with the clubs”.


Prison required against a Nice supporter

One year of imprisonment including six months suspended: this is the penalty required Wednesday, September 22 against the Nice supporter guilty of a kick against the Marseille playmaker, Dimitri Payet, on August 22 during the Mediterranean derby. This 28-year-old temporary worker was filmed by the stadium’s CCTV cameras, the first to enter the pitch and move towards the Marseille player.

He has “Ashamed of his gesture” and is in “An attitude of repentance”, pleaded his lawyer Me Benjamin Taïeb. The lawyer of the Professional Football League, Mr.e Benjamin Peyrelevade, for his part, underlined the need to stop these incessant overflows in the stadiums by asking himself: “We wonder what will be the next step”. The decision was put under advisement as of September 30.



Euro 2021: curfew, fan-zones, bars… How to follow the matches?

Broadcast on Tuesday, June 15 at 9 p.m. on beIN Sports 1 and M6, the France-Germany match marks the entry of the Blues into Euro 2021, until the final whistle which should occur around 10.50 p.m., i.e. ten minutes before the start of the curfew.

→ READ. Football: France-Germany, these Blues to whom Munich succeeds

Despite the relaxation, which took place last Wednesday, of the health rules put in place to fight the Covid-19 pandemic, it will still be difficult Tuesday for French supporters to come together in large numbers to attend the great debut of the world champions, or to continue the evening beyond the end of the meeting.

► Home matches

It will of course be possible to watch the match from your home. Tuesday evening, the France-Germany match will be broadcast live on M6 and on beIN Sports 1 for subscribers. TF1 and M6 will then share the broadcasting of the other matches of the France team, as well as the final of the Euro.

► No exemption from the curfew but “a tolerance”

There will be no waiver of the curfew, which remains in effect until Wednesday, June 30. If you watched the game away from home, regardless of its outcome, you will need to get back to your home. at 11 p.m.. “Before the finals, there is no overtime and therefore the matches should end before 11:00 pm”, argues the Ministry of the Interior. On Friday, an exemption was exceptionally granted during the men’s semi-final at Roland Garros, which was able to end after 11 p.m. in the presence of the public.

Gérald Darmanin, however, asked Monday June 14 “For the police to show proof of particular leniency during checks “People who would go home after watching the game outside their home”. On Tuesday, the Minister of Sports Roxana Maracineanu confirmed on Franceinfo that a “Tolerance” would be applied for supporters who have watched the game away from home. On the other hand, “Any behavior endangering the life of others must be particularly punished”, warns the Minister of the Interior.

► Limited number of fan zones depending on the city

The usual place for the public to rally during a major tournament, the fan-zones will be open in limited numbers. “Only fan zones with seated spectators can be put in place until June 29, in compliance with the prescribed tonnage and sanitary measures “, said the Ministry of the Interior, according to the protocol communicated by the Ministry of National Education, Youth and Sports. Unreported gatherings of more than 10 people on public roads remain prohibited.

→ READ. Euro 2021 football: the players to watch

The decision to open a fan-zone is within the remit of town halls, which must meet the health specifications established by the protocol, but it is also subject to obtaining a prefectural authorization. Under these conditions, very few of them have taken the plunge:

AT Bron, a neighboring city of Lyon, a fan-zone with a capacity of 900 places will open its doors on Tuesday and it will be accessible by reservation, said the town hall.
AT Lille, Mayor Martine Aubry (PS) is “Favorable to the establishment of a fan-zone if this can be done in accordance with the rules” in the last three games – the semi-finals and the final in July – but excludes installing one in June.
Same policy at Besancon, where the town hall “Plans to organize the retransmissions of the semi-finals (July 6 or 7) and the final on July 11, at the Léo-Lagrange Stadium (…) with a number of people still to be defined and the obligation of a medical pass to access it ”.
AT Paris and Marseilles, there shouldn’t be a fan zone in June.

► Supervised distribution in bars and restaurants

Another choice available to you: the broadcasting of matches in bars and restaurants. This will also be highly regulated in order to comply with the current gauges, namely a reception capacity limited to 50% with a maximum of six people per table indoors, and 100% with also a maximum of six people per table outdoors.

Many bars and restaurants have already planned to offer the France-Germany shock to their customers indoors. The broadcasting of matches on the terraces of the bars is left to the free appreciation of the cities and prefectures:

→ FILE. A summer under Covid: the answers to your questions about vacations

AT Paris, the installation of television screens on the terrace was thus prohibited by the town hall.
In the Bouches-du-Rhône, the prefecture on the other hand authorized them under conditions: “Table service, 6 per table, barrier gestures respected, terrace empty at 11:00 p.m., screen directed inwards (to prevent non-customers from watching the match from the street)”, detail as wellthe Union of Trades and Hospitality Industries of Bouches-du-Rhône on its Facebook page.