Are plug-in hybrids doomed?

Fabian Kirchbauer

Presented as an alternative to 100% electric for companies, plug-in hybrid vehicles are starting to make some fleet managers cringe. The reason? Too big a difference between theoretical and actual cost.

Last January, the canton of Valais, Switzerland, decided to remove subsidies for plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). This measure was taken following a report published by Impact Living, a Swiss company specializing in particular in electric mobility. “Real fuel consumption measurements show that these models fall far short of their promises and offer only very slight (if any) advantages over a conventional internal combustion engine car”could we read.

A pithy decision? Yes and no. Because this technology is in itself a paradox. Explanations. PHEVs have two motors, one thermal and one electric. To operate the latter and have 50 km to 80 km of autonomy in 100% electric mode, depending on the model, the car carries batteries, i.e. 200 kg to 300 kg additional. But when unloaded, they become dead weight, leading to overconsumption.

Despite this overweight, they display approved consumption of barely 1 l/100 km, synonymous with CO emissions.2 very low (less than 20 g/km). With such characteristics, despite a higher price, PHEVs quickly entered car policies. Reduced taxation and a transition to seamless electrification for the employee, so many arguments in their favor to meet the mobility orientation law (LOM).

Declining sales

Today, they represent 11% of the B to B sales mix, a market share that has climbed to 20% with certain rental companies such as Alphabet. Stéphane Crasnier, its president, regrets that this technology has “Sold very badly, seeing here a dichotomy between the use of the vehicle and taxation. Before equipping his fleet with PHEV, the manager must ask himself the right questions: what use will the employee make of it? His mileage? Will he be able to recharge it or not? The PHEV is perfectly suited for drivers who drive daily in urban areas and who can plug in daily. This will not be the case for the big rollers. The PHEV, a casting error? Many manufacturers, Stellantis the first, have sold it as an alternative to diesel, which, incidentally, with a market share of 23.8%, is still the second best-selling energy on the BtoB market. “To optimize the TCO of a PHEV, you have to recharge as often as possible, recalls Stéphane Crasnier. Otherwise, beware of unpleasant surprises. It is therefore essential to train employees in good practices.”

Because, depending on usage, the differences between theoretical consumption and actual consumption can be multiplied by three, or even by ten on the motorway! However, interest in PHEV seems to be slowing down. In Europe, for the first time, sales fell 6% in the third quarter. In France, since January, they have fallen by 12.1% while non-rechargeable hybrids have increased by 5.2% in an overall market down by 10.3%. Is the fate of PHEVs sealed then? It is very likely. France will join the decision of the canton of Valais. From 1er January 2023, the €1,000 bonus for a PHEV – provided it costs less than €50,000 and has a range of more than 50 km – will be removed.



Charging infrastructure: France wants to catch up

SURVEY – Manufacturers, operators, installers: all electromobility players are working hard to build a public network capable of responding to the increase in the electric fleet.

The government promised 100,000 charging stations at the end of last year. It is clear that the commitment was not kept. On April 30, 2022, France had 60,040 charging points open to the public (source: Avere-France). A mediocre result that drops France to eleventh place among the most “electrocompatible” countries, according to a recent study published by the long-term rental company Leaseplan. “This number of 100,000 terminals was not taken out at random, explains Clément Molizon, deputy general delegate at Avere-France. It was signed by the state and car manufacturers in 2018. This agreement provided for a fleet of one million electrified cars in 2021 and was based on a ratio advised by Brussels of one charging station for ten vehicles. » At the time, electric car sales accounted for 2% market share. At the end of April, their penetration was 12%, to which must be added the 10% of rechargeable hybrids.

Shortage of components

Sylvain Reisser

If, with approximately 14 electric vehicles per charging point, France seems to be approaching the European recommendation, the car fleet is nevertheless evolving faster than the infrastructure. Since the start of the year, sales of electric vehicles have increased by 40%, which creates a lag. “The reasons for this delay are multiple. Starting with the pandemic which has delayed a number of projects. Then, the 2020 municipal elections shifted some facilities. Finally, we must not forget that the terminals are also bearing the full brunt of the shortage of electronic components”, enumerates Clément Molizon. But all the actors are confident. “You don’t necessarily have to look at the number of terminals, but the dynamics put in place”, tempers Mathias Laffont, director of uses and territories within the French Electricity Union (UFE). Their number has actually increased by 55% in one year. And the acceleration is stronger on fast charging stations, even if, in volume, they remain largely in the minority. “A year after the disappearance of the old Corri-Door network which had been established in 2015 on the motorways, 40% of the service areas again had charging points”, he continues.

By the end of 2022, almost all of them, i.e. 428 areas, should be equipped with fast charging stations, between 150 and 350 kW according to the operators. There is also not a month where the motorway companies do not announce a call for tenders signed with an operator like the French TotalEnergies or Engie, the Dutch Fastned or the consortium of car manufacturers Ionity, to name but a few. Vinci, France’s largest motorway concessionaire, said last March that 60% of its areas were equipped with charging stations and is aiming for 100% by the end of next year. For its part, on April 22, Engie Solutions indicated that it was installing 186 charging points on the motorways of the Sanef network (East, northern France and Normandy). “The development of infrastructure on motorways and major roads is essential to accelerate the transition to the electric car, because charging over long distances is today one of the main obstacles for the acquisition of an electric car. . Even if 85% of recharging is done at home or in the office, on private terminals”, underlines Mathias Laffont.

Sylvain Reisser

Motorway companies are not the only ones working hard. “Many private players, such as large retailers, install fast charging infrastructure in their car parks because it is an additional commercial argument to bring in their customers,” observes Clément Molizon. A strategy similar to what Leclerc and other Carrefours had implemented several decades ago with gas pumps. Will it be necessary to install this type of charging points everywhere? All the players agree that the good ratio of slow terminals to fast terminals varies between 15% and 25% for the latter. “The most important thing is their location,” underlines Mathias Laffont. But today, we are still quite far from it. In fact, the fleet of public terminals is made up of 92% slow or normal charging points (up to 22 kW), 5% fast charging (between 50 and 150 kW) and 3% ultra-fast charging (at above 150 kW).

Mandatory terminal maintenance

Although the installation of the 100,000 terminals has therefore been delayed, all the players in the sector nevertheless agree that the contract will probably be completed in the first half of 2023. There remains the availability of the installed terminals. Who hasn’t had the unpleasant experience of coming across a faulty charging station at least once? “Before 2017, terminal installers had no maintenance obligation,” explains Mathias Laffont. Since that date, operators are now responsible for infrastructure maintenance. “But it blocks a little, because as for the installation of the terminals they face the shortage of certain materials”, he adds.

And once we hit 100,000? “Until recently, there was no real roadmap, we note at the UFE. A few days after his victory in the presidential election, Emmanuel Macron promised an investment of 6 billion euros devoted to aid for purchase and social leasing, retrofitting and the installation of “at least 500,000 terminals public by 2027. “There is no golden figure for public charging stations, relates Clément Molizon. But according to studies, we estimate that there will be a need for 330,000 to 480,000 terminals by the end of the decade. On this date, certain studies published by non-governmental organizations such as Transport & Environment or ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation), cited by Avere-France, estimate that the fleet of electrified vehicles will be between 5.5 and 7, 5 million units. Others, as part of the consultations for the next national low-carbon strategy, expect nearly 10 million units. Will this be enough?



Electric vehicles: the most welcoming European cities

RANKS – The Uswitch energy comparator ranks cities according to their charging infrastructure. Paris is a red lantern.

All that for this. For years, the mayor of Paris has been defending, with a lot of speeches and publicity, the promotion of the electric car. A lure that would be more of a political strategy than a real ecological conscience. How else to explain that according to the latest ranking established by the energy comparator Uswitch, Paris fails in the penultimate position of European cities in terms of quality of infrastructure. We know, however, that the network, the accessibility and the charging power delivered by the terminals are obstacles to the development of electromobility.

The ranking was established by compiling four items: the average price of electricity, the average distance between chargers, the average charging power and the percentage of free charging points. Compiling the data allows Uswitch to deliver a score out of 10.

With a score of 7.94, Reykjavik tops this ranking. While the price per kWh does not exceed €0.29, owners of electric vehicles can find a terminal every 550 meters on average. The capital of Iceland is ahead of Glasgow. The English city charges €0.32 per kWh but is ahead of Reykavik in terms of free charging points with a score of 92% compared to 65% in Iceland. Lisbon climbs to the third step of the podium with a score of 7.31 ahead of Budapest (7.14).

At the other end of the ranking, Liverpool brings up the rear with a score of 4.89 which is explained by only 38% of free charging points, a kWh billed at €0.38 and terminals installed on average every 2, 35km. Paris fails in the penultimate place. It is in the French capital that the price per kWh is the highest: €0.54. If Paris can flatter itself with a charging power of 54 kW, the number of free charging points is only 14% and the average distance between the terminals does not exceed 2.14 km. Vienna is also on the podium of the least welcoming cities for electric vehicles. This gives the magnitude of the efforts to be made to encourage the development of the electric car.



Electric vehicles: a charging network far from the budget

NEWS – Charging the battery remains a chore with public infrastructure barely halfway through the 100,000 charging point target.

This is neither the first nor the last time that a government has broken its promises. Last year, in the effervescence of an acceleration in sales of electrified vehicles – mainly models with rechargeable batteries – the public authorities announced a vast investment plan to reach 100,000 charging points by the end of 2021. on the public domain. Without the constitution of a real ecosystem facilitating the recharging of the batteries of rechargeable and electric hybrid vehicles in the public domain, in particular when roaming, we know that the ecological transition is doomed to failure. Bad experiences can only breed disappointment and rejection.

At the end of the first confinement in 2020, the government had therefore launched a vast support plan for carbon-free cars. This program included several components, including a budget of 100 million euros to reach the objective of 100,000 fast-charging stations by the end of 2021 on the highways and the national road network “in order to facilitate long-distance travel by electric vehicle throughout the region. territory.” The government has erred in optimism. This goal was not achievable. As underlined by Gireve, the interoperability platform for electric mobility which aggregates data on behalf of the Directorate General for Energy and Climate (Ministry of Ecological Transition) and Avere-France, the bar of the 50,000 charging points open to the public has just been exceeded.

After compilation of the data, at the end of November 2021, the number of public terminals stood at 51,243, or 1,329 installations in one month (+ 3%). Since January 2021, the increase has reached 51%. A significant increase but insufficient to reach the target of 100,000 at the end of 2021. Despite the mobilization of all stakeholders and mainly oil companies and mass distribution, all professionals knew full well that the achievement of l he objective was utopian. This delay would be the consequence of several factors: an explosion in demand that manufacturers and craftsmen-installers are not able to keep up and the shortage of semiconductors. Relating mainly to craftsmen, the installer sector was absolutely not sized to meet such an influx of demands.

The distribution of charging points according to the nominal power category by region (November 2021). Recognized

If growth continues in 2022 at the same rate as in 2021, the objective of 100,000 charging points will not be reached until 2023. However, there is an emergency because at the same time, the fleet of battery-powered vehicles continues to progress.

Charging by power category (end of November 2021). Recognized

The hexagon map also shows strong disparities between regions. Geographical areas are absolutely not covered, which makes long journeys even more problematic. Finally, the quality of the installations is very disparate. Alternating current represents the majority of infrastructure. Fast and ultra-fast charging, which requires significant investment, represents only a small part of the public charging network.

In addition, to continue accelerating the plan, the State has reinforced its financial support. The territories covered by a master plan will benefit until the end of 2025 from 75% coverage of the costs of connection to the electricity distribution network of the recharging facilities. This coverage of connection costs can be combined with aid from the “ADVENIR” program, covering approximately 60% of the installation costs of terminals open to the public. On an issue where the return on investment is so remote that it does not encourage private actors to invest, public action is essential for a successful ecological transition.



Electric vehicles: not all terminals are created equal

OUR ADVICES – Installing recharging infrastructure for battery-powered vehicles in a business can quickly turn into an obstacle course.

Alternating current, direct current, type 2 socket, recharging capacity: difficult to navigate among all the charging station offers. There are two categories: the first distribute alternating current (AC). They are equipped with a type 2 plug, the European standard, and sometimes with a domestic plug. They have four charging power levels: 3.7 kW, 7.4 kW, 11 kW and 22 kW. The first two powers are more than sufficient for most plug-in hybrids, while the second is recommended for 100% electric models.

The right power

The second category of terminals delivers direct current (DC). Their charging power starts at 50 kW and increases to 250 kW, which is the case for example with Tesla Superchargers, or even 350 kW, like those of the Ionity network. From 11 kW, this is considered fast charging, and above 50 kW, ultra-fast charging. With such power, it is thus possible to recover

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Charging stations in outdoor car parks in collective housing: a crucial issue

NEWS – The surface parking lots of condominiums are the big ones forgotten by the programs to install a recharging network for battery-powered vehicles.

These are called “white areas”. Outdoor or overhead car parks are the big ones that have been overlooked in the installation programs for terminals in collective housing. However, they represent half of residential car parks, or around 4 million spaces. According to the Tera study commissioned by Zeplug, the leader in charging infrastructure in condominiums with 45% of the market, “nothing suggests that a movement is underway to reverse the situation”. If these car parks are neglected, it is because they involve quite heavy civil engineering work. Nicolas Banchet, CEO of Zeplug, affirms that “these services can represent ten times the cost of the electrical part. In some car parks accepting 100 spaces, the budget can reach tens or even hundreds of thousands of euros. This is why today these demands are not being met. The public authorities should be able to intervene. ”

For its part, the market for equipment in the underground car parks of condominiums and businesses is enjoying good momentum. Requests are pouring in. Including those of companies and individuals, Zeplug installs more than 300 terminals per month. “Depending on our rate of growth, which leads us to triple the number of installations every year, we are targeting between 50,000 and 100,000 terminals to be installed by 2025,” says Nicolas Banchet.



100,000 charging points at the end of 2021: target not reached

NEWS – Industrialists and installers under pressure, shortage of electronic chips: the deployment of the public charging network is missing its target. The momentum is present but will have to accelerate to follow the needs of the market.

The ax has already fallen. Without waiting for the end of the year, we already know that France will not succeed in achieving the objective set last year by the government of having 100,000 charging points in public spaces by the end of 2021. According to the latest barometer from Avere-France (the National Association for the Development of Electric Mobility), as of August 31, there were nearly 40,000 charging points open to the public. This represents an increase of about 30% since the beginning of 2021. A figure which can vary by a few thousand, for lack of standardization of data.

Avere is working on it and should soon be able to offer a monthly compilation of indicators allowing an exact photograph of the number of charging points open to the public. For their part, businesses and individuals have 364,451 and 305,685 charging points respectively. Still according to Avere, France would thus have 700,000 points in total (end of August). Today, all professionals agree that the government’s goal was unrealistic. The health crisis would have nothing to do with it. The delay is said to be the consequence of several factors. The first concerns the explosion in demand. The second stems from this and comes from a still undersized economy, whether on the side of equipment manufacturers but also electrical installers. The third is the icing on the cake: the shortage of electronic components which is also impacting the automotive sector. Nicolas Banchet, Managing Director of Zeplug, the leader in the installation of terminals in condominiums, explains that “the profession of electrician is still largely dominated by craftsmen. 80% of electricians work in structures with fewer than 10 people. ”

Indispensable support

Even if “the objective of 100,000 terminals” will not be reached by the end of 2021, the program launched by the government will have enabled the installations to gain momentum. “Everyone wants terminals”, assures Nicolas Banchet. When will the goal be reached? The most optimistic believe that the 100,000 mark will be crossed at the end of 2022. Others think that it will be necessary to wait until 2023. The Advenir program piloted by Avere-France represents essential support to accompany the ecological transition. It has financed 36,000 charging points since 2016. We must go further because at the same time, the fleet of rechargeable battery vehicles continues to grow. In the first nine months of 2021, France registered 101,793 plug-in hybrid vehicles and 106,031 electric models. The Advenir program for financing recharging infrastructures was therefore extended until 2023, with the objective of financing more than 45,000 new recharging points. This program covers the costs of supplying and installing charging points up to 60% for car parks open to the public and 50% for collective residential. It is accessible to all French people, individuals, businesses, communities and the amounts of aid can range from 960 euros up to 9,000 euros for businesses, 100,000 to 240,000 euros for charging hubs and from 960 euros for collective residential. The problem is that Avere has announced that the envelope of 100 million euros planned to last until 2023 will be exhausted at the beginning of 2022. In order not to relax the efforts, Avere-France recommends to renew it very quickly and even to strengthen it.

Terminals out of service

At the end of August, 691 charging stations (located on areas of the motorway network and on national roads within a radius of 1,000 meters) with at least one charging point with a power equal to or greater than 50 kW, were to count. In detail, 31% of these infrastructures deliver a power less than or equal to 11 kW, 61% a power between 14 and 22 kW, 5% between 24 and 50 kW and finally 3% of the charging points offer a power greater than 50 kW. Market players have noted that to avoid the disappointment of users converted to 100% electric, one of the main challenges is the networking of fast terminals to facilitate roaming. However, if its deployment is not as rapid as some would like, it is because the cost of installing such equipment makes its profitability uncertain for several years. The investment can be around 100,000 euros, taking into account the costs inherent in civil engineering and connection.

The study that the consulting company Tera carried out on behalf of Zeplug shows that the insufficiency of fast terminals in the public domain is slowing the development of electric vehicles. The crowds on vacation departure days represent another pitfall. The infrastructures set up in particular in the areas of the motorway networks will have to manage a massive influx of motorists and long queues. We are already seeing discontent. The challenge is all the more important as the French Association for the roaming of electric vehicle recharging (Afirev) reports in the Tera study that 85% of electric vehicle users have encountered at least one public charging point outside service in the last six months. Among these stations, 9% were out of service for more than seven consecutive days, between May and October 2020. On a sample of 596,000 recharging sessions, Afirev noted a rate of 25% of untimely shutdowns requiring at least to restart the operation. The situation is said to be improving, but with the increase in sessions, networks are not immune to further failures.

Looking to the longer term, in 2030 when car manufacturers will have to lower the average CO2 emissions of their ranges by 55%, Tera estimates that the fleet of rechargeable battery vehicles should be between 5 and 8 million, depending on the scenario. Converted in terms of infrastructure, these evaluations show that an average annual growth rate of between 38 and 42% would be needed to cover the needs. While the objective of 100,000 charging points has not yet been met, the study shows that 25,000 to 90,000 additional points in public spaces will be needed next year and 50,000 to 100,000 again in 2023. To cover the needs of 2030, an average of 750,000 charging points will be needed each year. Based on a fleet of electrified vehicles of 5.5 million in 2030 (medium scenario), the needs would be 7.5 million charging points, including 500,000 with fast charging (greater than 22 kW). They will be distributed as follows: 1.9 million in company car parks and as many in individual housing with parking space or garage, 1.7 million in collective housing with parking space and, at least 1, 5 million in public space. If we take the hypothesis of a vehicle fleet entirely converted to electric, i.e. 38 million vehicles, the Tera study estimates that 50 million charging points will be needed, of which 18 million are accessible to the public. This shows the magnitude of the challenge to be taken up.



Charging infrastructures: new requirements

NEWS – A new decree governs the installation of charging stations for electric vehicles.

The new decree (n ° 2017-26 of January 2017) relating to charging infrastructure for electric vehicles has just entered into force. Among the many advances related to the deployment of the network, the new amendment provides for a strengthening of the technical and skills requirements for market players, designers and installers, such as Bornes Solutions, Alphabet, ZEborne (Proxiserve), Zeplug, ChargeGuru, IZI by EDF … In addition, carrying out an electrical design study becomes compulsory for any project to install charging stations in collective residential buildings with at least four charging points.

Jérôme Princet, CEO of Bornes Solutions, the first company to obtain IRVE design qualification, is delighted: “It is a fundamental element in solving the recurring quality and reliability problems encountered by users of electric vehicles. For our part, we have already anticipated the strong demand for future installations and pre-equipped upstream of many collective housing in connection with the condominium managers. The installation of the terminals will then be done on demand, as needed. ” Thus, 500,000 parking spaces can already rely on this efficient recharging service in France, i.e. 11% of spaces in residential buildings, and they will be 1 million by the end of the year, in order to keep up with the ” increase in the fleet of rechargeable battery vehicles estimated at 1 million units in 2022.

Another novelty to facilitate the deployment of a charging system in a condominium: the equipment decision can be taken by simple majority (right to take) if the financial burden rests solely on the future user. The applicant will be able, in fact, to go through the public distribution network without advance of costs, the infrastructure being reimbursed as and when it is consumed only.

A terminal at 800 euros

And Jérôme Princet to tell us: “In this case, following the agreement, the installation is effective after 3 to 4 weeks. The price of a terminal, which can recover 15 to 30 km per hour of charge – which is largely sufficient, the cars staying 60% of the time at home -, is around 1,100 euros before the credit of Allocated tax of 300 euros, ie a reasonable expense of 800 euros which represents the equivalent of ten full tanks of fuel. “

Another change concerns the assumption of 75% of the connection costs for recharging infrastructures until 2025 instead of 2021, in order to be able to equip all the service areas of the express and motorway network with fast recharging stations.

This summer, 156 stations out of 368 will be equipped with them. And 192 at the end of 2021. To amplify the deployment, an additional envelope of 100 million euros has been released for operators.

Finally, public car parks with more than 20 spaces must be equipped with charging points. Without further clarification as to the gauge or the charging power delivered. Logically, it would be a terminal per section of 20 locations, provided that this does not involve major additional work, such as electrical connection. Communities have until 1er January 2025 to comply.



100,000 charging points: an objective already out of reach?

INVESTIGATION – Brought forward one year by the government to support the acceleration of the ecological transition, this program to install a public charging network is slowing down. Decryption.

“As of May 1, 2021, France had 33,363 points open to the public, an increase of 7% since the start of the year”, declared Cécile Goubet, the general delegate of Avere-France (the national association for the development of electric mobility), in the latest national barometer of charging infrastructure. About 67,000 are missing in France to reach the target of 100,000 load points at the end of 2021 set by Jean-Baptiste Djebarri, the Minister for Transport, in October 2020.

Slow deployment

So there are now a little less than eight months and we are still far from the mark. If, between 2015 and 2019, the installation of terminals was fairly sustained with an increase fluctuating between + 13% (2018) and + 31% (2016), in 2020 it was only + 4%. This slowdown, which looks like a pause, does not fail to challenge as a large number of local authorities and departmental energy unions have, at the same time, continued the installations

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Electric vehicle: where to find charging stations?

NEWS – Will the government objective of 100,000 charging points in the public domain by the end of 2021 be reached? Mobileese draws up an inventory by department.

Europe wants to put all motorists to the electric car. To encourage this conversion, the countries of the European Union are stepping up initiatives. In France, to stimulate an automobile market shaken by the spring 2020 containment which forced the concessions to close and put the economy on hold, the government set up, from June 1, 2020, a vast support plan for the sector. Behind this objective, the public authorities saw it as a golden opportunity to accelerate the ecological transition by heavily subsidizing the purchase of a rechargeable battery vehicle. Thus, the bonus granted to the purchase of an electric vehicle with a value of less than € 45,000 was raised by € 2,000, ie € 7,000 for individuals and € 5,000 for businesses. In addition, plug-in hybrid vehicles for an amount less than or equal to 50,000 euros and which can claim an electric range of 50 km benefit from a bonus of 2,000 euros. To encourage the renewal of the fleet, the government has at the same time set up a conversion bonus. Result: the French have greatly benefited from this windfall effect. At the end of 2020, at the time of an initial assessment, the registrations of rechargeable battery vehicles have grown exponentially. Sales of 100% electric vehicles reached 110,936 units, or 6.72% of the overall market. Those of plug-in hybrid vehicles represented 74,627 units, or a market share of 4.52%. Knowing that the aid has been extended until June 30, 2021, the public authorities expect to reach a rechargeable battery vehicle fleet of 1 million vehicles by early 2022.

The map of France at the beginning of December 2020. Mobileese

The acceleration of the ecological transition will only be successful if it is accompanied by an ambitious plan to deploy charging stations in public spaces. This is how the French government brought forward by one year the installation program for 100,000 charging points in the region. At the end of 2021, owners of rechargeable battery vehicles will thus have to be able to rely on a substantial network. The Mobileese electric mobility advisory office is thus compiling government data to provide an exhaustive analysis of the target achievement rate in terms of number of charging points, by department. Mobileese undertakes to regularly communicate the progress of the charging infrastructure.

The latest report from early December 2020 reveals that 38 metropolitan departments offer a fast charging infrastructure of at least ten direct current charging points of 50 kW or more. We know that this is the technical solution to be favored to reduce recharging times and thus encourage the acceptability of the electric car. This will make the defenders of the thermal car smile, but we can recover around 200 km of autonomy in 40 minutes. Among these departments, 15 of them have equipped more than 10% of their network open to the public with fast charging points. Some of them are more than 33% from the end of 2021 target: Cantal with 89%; the Landes (39%); Mayenne (18%); the Vendée (17%); the Hautes-Alpes (167%); the Hérault (14%); Tarn, Ardèche, Gironde and Lozère at 13%; Ariège and Yonne at 11%.

As the map of France indicates, a large swath covering central France and east-central reveals low coverage. This is due to the fact that the government has not updated the data for the following regions: Allier, Alpes de Haute-Provence, Ardennes, Creuse, Gers, Ille-et-Vilaine, Indre, Haute-Loire, Manche, Meuse, Puy-de-Dôme, Vosges.

Still, according to the latest Avere-France study, owners of rechargeable battery cars consider that the charging network in the public domain remains the main Achilles heel of electric mobility. 68% of those surveyed say they are exasperated by the too frequent breakdowns of installations and the obstacles still too numerous, foremost among which are often the lack of interoperability of terminals and the impossibility of fee-for-service payment.