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Tropical spiders can hide for 30 minutes underwater


A tropical spider uses air membranes to hide under water and hide from predators for half an hour, surprising scientists.

The air membrane makes the spider look like it’s covered in silver. Image: Lindsey Swierk

Lindsey Swierk, assistant professor of biology at Binghamton University, New York, observes a large tropical spider (Trechalea extensa) run away from humans and hide under water. Previously, researchers did not know this spider was able to use the water surface to escape for so long. “For many animals, being cold and wet can be as life-threatening as dealing with predators,” Swierk said.

The spider hid under the water for about 30 minutes. As it sinks, it maintains a “film” of air surrounding its body. Swierk and colleagues suspect that the hairs covering the spider’s body help it maintain an air membrane, prevent heat loss while underwater, or prevent water from entering its respiratory organs.

The air membrane surrounding the underwater spider appears to be fixed by the waterproof fur that covers its body. The spider looks like it’s dipped in silver. The air membrane can act as a barrier between the water and the respiratory tract, while minimizing heat loss under the cold water stream.

According to Swierk, the observations provide new insights into how spiders deal with the problem of finding refuge in the water. “Like any animal that must hide from predators, Trechalea spiders must do their best to deal with risks, including the risk of being eaten and the risk of running away. For some species, that’s the case. That means leaving a territory or a mate, or having to use up stored energy. In Trechalea spiders, the potential risks of hiding in the water can include difficulty breathing and loss of body temperature,” Swierk said.

The team describes the observation in the journal Ethology on April 22. Swierk et al. suggest that there are still many questions to be answered from this first observation.

An Khang (According to Phys.org)

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Goats give birth to five rare children


Nghe AnA goat of a household in Thanh Chuong gave birth in a healthy year, surprising many people.

Mrs. Doan Thi Hang (52 years old), living in Thanh Hoa commune (Thanh Chuong) said that on the afternoon of April 25, the family’s goat gave birth to 5 children in turn. In which, the first child was born normally, the second child was born backwards, the third child was normal, the fourth child was born backwards and the fifth child was normal.

“All 5 children are healthy and without deformities,” Hang said and said she was surprised by the number of goats that were born in one go. Two days ago, when they heard that the goat was born in a rare year, many people went to Mrs. Hang’s house to see it.

The hostess, said this mother goat was purchased by her family in 2019 and this is the fourth litter. Before that, the first time gave birth to one child, the second and third times gave birth to three children each. Worried that the mother goat would not have enough milk to feed the baby, the owner gave the neighbor two baby goats.

5 goats at birth. Image: Family provided

An official from Nghe An Department of Agriculture and Rural Development said that the case of goats born 4 and 5 is very rare, the rate is very small. On average, each litter has 1-3 babies.

House goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) belongs to the type of ruminant animals such as buffaloes, cows, sheep. Goats are animals with the ability to reproduce very quickly (more than cows, buffaloes…). Most goats are 6-8 months old when they reach reproductive age. The gestation period for goats is about 140 days. They have a fast reproduction rate along with a goat’s habit of eating a lot, but there are some recommendations not to let domestic goats loose without control.

Phuong Linh

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Leopards break into the hornbill’s nest


South AfricaThe camera trap captured a leopard burrowing into a hornbill’s nest in Kruger National Park and getting a meal easily.

Leopards hunt young flamingos. Video: APNR

Footage shot by a team of experts from the APNR Southern Hornbill Conservation and Research Project, who have been searching for the endangered bird in South Africa for more than two decades, shows the leopard stumbling between Thin branches surround the nest before poking halfway through the hole in the nest and emerging with a baby bird.

“We go to the nest during a routine inspection to monitor the breeding and condition of the chicks,” said graduate student Kyle-Mark Middleton and researcher Carrie Hickman. “When we got there, we heard rustling and was above and something jumped down. When we got to the foot of the nest, we found a half-eaten baby bird on the ground. We looked again. camera images to find out what happened”.

The southern hornbill is one of the most unique birds in Africa. As the world’s largest co-parenting bird, adults are one meter tall, with long curved beaks and bright red facial skin that make them stand out when striding across grasslands in search of lizards, snakes, and animals. Small mammals and other birds. Hornbills often nest in tall trees, but habitat loss has reduced their range to only 10 – 30%. As a result, the number of this species has also decreased significantly.

In an effort to increase the number of birds, the APNR project began to install artificial nests. To date, 109 chicks have been raised in artificial nests, and researchers have gathered a wealth of information about the flamingo ecology. However, natural predators remain a major threat to vulnerable young birds.

“As we watched the footage, we were saddened by what happened. The loss of young birds is a huge loss for this endangered bird. At the same time, the good news is that we caught the perpetrators. Usually, we only found empty nests and guessed that the young birds were eaten, but we don’t know what animal it was,” the team said. Researchers are considering anti-predator measures in some artificial nests.

Leopards are opportunistic carnivores and usually eat anything they find, including pythons, squirrels, and zebra carcasses. Sometimes, they can fly into the air to catch birds or raid a nest that is not guarded by a parent bird.

An Khang (According to Earth Touch News)

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Penguins jump on boat to hide from seals


Adelie the penguin took refuge in the tourist boat and was safely returned to the iceberg after a leopard seal chase.

The penguin escaped by jumping on a boat carrying tourists. Video: Caters

Photographer and guide Vladimir Seliverstov from Russia captured the penguin Adelie on a boat during an expedition in Antarctica. The penguin jumps onto the boat while running away from the leopard seal. After escaping, it roamed around and was returned by boat travelers to its brethren on a nearby iceberg.

“I have been photographing wildlife for over 20 years. I have never experienced anything like it before but some of my friends have. Penguins can be very comfortable with people but Not all individuals are like that,” Seliverstov shared.

The Adelie penguin is the most common penguin species in Antarctica. They are well adapted to less ice at sea and enjoy these favorable feeding conditions. In an ice-free environment, Adelie penguins can move more by swimming and have easier access to food sources. For penguins, swimming is four times faster than walking on foot. They can be very agile underwater but quite slow when walking on land, according to researcher Yuuki Watanabe of the Polar Research Institute in the US.

In recent decades, Antarctica has experienced a steady increase in the area of ​​sea ice while the Arctic has experienced a sharp decline. Polar biologists have long known that penguins tend to increase in numbers in years when sea ice is sparse and reproduce poorly during times when sea ice is most open.

Leopard seals can weigh over 380 kg and can live 12 – 15 years in the wild. They are dangerous predators, feeding on warm-blooded animals such as other seals and birds. They can target penguins as they jump from the ice shelf into the frigid Antarctic sea.

An Khang (Follow Mail)

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Fossil ‘sea dragon’ over 10 m . long


BrotherPaleontologists have discovered a giant skeleton of a ichthyosaur that lived in British waters 180 million years ago.

The Rutland fossil is a rare complete marine reptile skeleton. Photo: Angel Water

Joe Davis discovered the fossil at Rutland Water Nature Reserve in England in January 2021. Davis, the conservation team leader, saw several fossil bones protruding from the ground as they absorbed water from the site. At first glance, the fossil appears to belong to a giant dinosaur. But when paleontologist Dean Lomax examined the photograph, he immediately knew Davis had found a massive marine reptile called a ichthyosaur, or ichthyosaur.

Fish dragons existed at the same time as dinosaurs, but they had a completely different shape and structure. Fish dragons evolved from terrestrial reptiles in the Tam Diep period 246 million years ago. Their bodies become more elongated and fish-like over time. The ichthyosaurs lived in the sea until about 95 million years ago.

Many ichthyosaurs were about the size of today’s sharks, hunting fish, squid and other small prey. Some species are top predators, often targeting large marine reptiles. Up to now, the largest ichthyosaur species in history lived in the Tam Diep period, 250 – 201 million years ago.

Fossils from Rutland are about 180 million years old and belong to a massive animal. According to paleontologist Rebecca Bennion of the University of Liège, this large and complete fossil is a very special find. The skull alone was nearly 2.1 meters long while the entire body was more than 10 meters long, equivalent to a modern minke whale.

It took researchers more than two weeks to excavate the skull. According to Lomax, this is one of the most complete large prehistoric reptile skeletons ever discovered in the UK. While the find has not been described in the official report, Jorge Velez-Juarbe, a paleontologist at the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, says the fossil will provide new insights into the evolutionary history of the creature. sea ​​reptile.

The team is still excavating the Rutland ichthyosaur fossil. However, Lomax and his team took every possible measurement and took thousands of pictures to 3D model the skeleton. Currently, they hypothesize that the skeleton belongs to ichthyosaurs Temnodontosaurus trigonodon just known from individual bones in the Jurassic soil of Germany. At the beginning of the Jurassic period 180 million years ago, T. trigonodon was the largest marine predator on the planet.

Another ichthyosaur may have sought to eat individuals in Rutland. Excavators found several Temnodontosaurus teeth around the skeleton, possibly traces of scavenging behavior, Lomax said.

Several species of ichthyosaurs as large as whales evolved in the early Triassic but disappeared during the mass extinction event 201 million years ago. The surviving ichthyosaurs became smaller, but some grew in size again. By examining the teeth of the new specimen, paleontologists can learn about the food and role of the Rutland ichthyosaur in the late Jurassic ecosystem.

An Khang (Follow National Geographic)

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The transparent head fish swims at a depth of 800 m


AmericaThe remote-controlled vehicle captured a rare sight of the barreleye fish, an animal with blue eyes that can peer through the forehead in search of prey.

The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), released a new video of a strange fish with glowing green eyes and a transparent head on December 9. This is actually the barreleye (Macropinna microstoma), which was captured by a remote control vehicle during an expedition by the research vessel Rachel Carson in Monterey Bay, off the coast of California.

Barreleye fish can see through their foreheads to see above and find prey. Scientists need to use remote control vehicles to record images because they often live at depths of up to 600-800 m, far beyond human ability.

The sighting of barreleye fish is very rare. “Ventana and Doc Ricketts, MBARI’s remote-controlled vehicles, have done more than 5,600 dives and recorded more than 27,600 hours, but we’ve only seen this fish nine times,” MBARI said.

Barrelfish are used to working in the dark and their unusual eyes help them find food in such conditions. Experts at MBARI discovered they eat jellyfish and have a maximum length of 15 cm. The two small depressions on their faces are actually olfactory organs, which can be considered as nostrils.

Initially, scientists thought that the eyes of barreleye fish could only see above the head, but a study published in 2009 showed that their eyes can rotate inside the transparent diaphragm so they can also see ahead. That helps the deep-sea creature keep an eye on what’s getting into its tiny mouth.

Thu Thao (Follow Cnet)

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The fish has 555 teeth and loses 20 of them every day


AmericaThe Pacific grouper changes its teeth regularly to continuously have sharp teeth to help grip its prey.

Pacific grouper swimming in the waters of Monterey, California. Photo: Gerald Corsi

Scientists discovered that the Pacific cotton grouper (Ophiodon elongatus) replaces up to 20 teeth a day, Live Science reported on 11/15. New research published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

The Pacific grouper is a carnivore that lives in the northern Pacific Ocean. As adults, they reach about 50 cm in length, but some can grow up to 1.5 m. They have up to 555 teeth arranged in two sets of jaws. Instead of incisors, molars and fangs, the grouper has hundreds of tiny sharp teeth. Behind the first set of jaws is a set of extra jaws that they use to chew food, the same way humans use molars.

To learn about the rate of tooth loss in grouper, Karly Cohen, a biology graduate student at the University of Washington, and Emily Carr, a biology student at the University of South Florida, tracked 20 groupers in tanks. water from a laboratory at the University of Washington. Because their teeth are very small, determining the rate of tooth loss is not simple.

The team put the grouper in a tank of water containing a red dye to dye the fish’s teeth red. Next, they transferred them to a pool of green dye to stain the teeth again.

The experts then examined the fish’s teeth. The teeth that existed from the beginning of the experiment will be red and blue, while the new teeth will only be blue. After examining a total of 10,000 teeth, they determined the rate of tooth loss and growth of the grouper and which teeth were replaced most often.

Specifically, grouper cotton changes about 20 teeth per day. This rate is equivalent to the loss and growth of one tooth per day in humans. Carr and colleagues also found that the teeth in the secondary molars were replaced faster.

The way they change teeth could be crucial to the grouper’s predation strategy, says Kory Evans, an ecologist at Rice University. “The blunter the grouper’s teeth, the harder it is to grab a bite,” explains Evans. The researchers also found that, similarly in humans, the tooth replacement process in the grouper is predetermined, meaning that the tooth is replaced by one of the same type and does not grow larger over time.

The team of experts hope the new study helps scientists understand more about fish teeth and inspires research on many other fish species.

Thu Thao (Follow Live Science)

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Gulls ‘ride’ moon fish


AmericaWhale observation service Dana Wharf shares rare footage of the interactions between gulls and giant moonfish.

Gulls ride Moon fish off the coast of California. Video: Storyful.

Video recorded by a group of whale watchers on April 16 shows gulls freely walking and catching parasites on the body of a giant lunar fish in waters off Dana Point in California. , to the west of America.

Dana Wharf service manager Donna Kalez says they typically catch one or two Moon fish on each trip but this is the largest specimen she has ever seen.

The Moonfish (Mola mola) is also known as the Ocean Sunfish because it regularly goes to the surface to sunbathe. At that time, they tilted 90 degrees and almost let the body float freely in the water. This species is quite slow to move with an average swimming speed of only 3.2 km / h.

With a weight of up to 2.3 tons, the Mola mola is the heaviest bony fish remaining on Earth. Adults are on average 1.8 m long and 2.5 m high from dorsal to pelvic fins. Moonfish today can be found throughout tropical and temperate seas around the world.

Doan Duong (According to the Storyful)

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The dragon is like coming out of a fantasy movie


The 160 million-year-old fossils in China reveal an ancient, never-before-seen species of lizards.

Simulation of Sinomacrops bondei (left) compared to Porgs in Star Wars. Image: Zhao Chuang.

According to the description in the magazine PeerJThe new species of cranes – named Sinomacrops bondei – possesses a chubby face with big eyes and a short chin, which looks like adorable birds in the sci-fi movie Star Wars: The Last Jedi. by Disney.

The 160-million-year-old fossils of the creature have been found in the Tiaojishan Formation in Hebei Province, northeastern China. This is the first specimen of the Anurognathid family still retaining an intact skull, allowing scientists to better understand the evolution and phylogenetic of this ancient group of lizards.

Sinomacrops bondei fossils with an almost intact skull.  Photo: Zhao Chuang.

Sinomacrops bondei fossils with an almost intact skull. Image: Zhao Chuang.

Anurognathid distributed in Asia and Europe from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous period, about 164 to 122 million years ago. They were much smaller in size than most of their contemporaries. All known Anurognathid species have wingspan not exceeding 90 cm.

Sinomacrops bondei is said to use its wings to fly in primeval forests and hunt small insects in the air.

To date, only three Anurognathid species have been described in China. The new discovery is therefore of great significance. The only fossil specimen of Sinomacrops bondei is currently kept at the Jinzhou Museum of Paleontology in central China.

Doan Duong (According to the Everything Dinosaur)

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Giant squid 4 m long appeared at the fishing port


During a trip to Itoigawa city in Niigata prefecture, a lucky Japanese man comes across a rare living giant squid specimen.

Giant squid appeared in the Japanese fish scene. Video: Tsutomu Sagawa.

Public Radio and Television NHK WORLD News of Japan on April 6 shared a video showing a giant squid appearing at Himekawa fishing port before dawn. Residents of Tsutomu Sagawa in Nagano, neighboring Niigata province, stumbled across and recorded this scene during a trip to Itoigawa City last month.

The video showed the creature still alive and continuously spraying water. It is about 4 m long, including the tentacles. Some local men tried to bring the animal inland, but it was too heavy to pull up.

“I don’t think there are any other squid species other than giant squid that can reach that size in the Sea of ​​Japan,” emphasized Hiroyuki Imura, Deputy Exhibition Director at Marinepia Nihonkai Aquarium in Niigata. “The footage of the living specimen of this species is very valuable.”

Giant squid is one of the largest invertebrates in existence when it can grow to a length of 13 m. They are said to be the inspiration for the ancients to create the mythical image of the sea monster Kraken. These deep-sea creatures are very rarely observed in nature as they live and feed thousands of meters above sea level.

Doan Duong (According to the NHK WORLD News)

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